PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters

Crimea The Last Crusade

Crimea The Last Crusade Summary í eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF The terrible conflict that dominated the mid 19th century the Crimean War killed at least 800000 men and pitted Russia against a formidable coalition of Britain France and the Ottoman Empire It was a war for territory provoked by fear that if the Ottoman Empire were to collapse then Russia could control a huge swathe of land from the Balkans to the Persian Gulf But it was also a war of religion driven by a fervent populist and ever ferocious belief by the Tsar and his ministers that it was Russia’s task to. The Crimean War A History by Orlando Figes is a large history of the Crimean War between Russia on one side and France Britain and the Ottoman Empire on the other The war began over religious scuffling between Catholic and Greek Orthodox pilgrims in Jerusalem then part of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman s had recently passed policy favourable to Catholic pilgrims at the expense of Orthodox pilgrims in the city with religious rights and priorities being granted to Catholic churches at the behest of the French government Previously Russia had imposed similar measures on the Ottoman government for their pilgrims and this tit for tat led to a strong response by the Russian government An ultimatum was sent and Russian troops sent into the Danubian principalities Wallachia and Moldova which were Romanian states under Ottoman suzerainty France and Britain were both alarmed by this move and sent their backing to the Ottoman government Britain was uite concerned with growing Russian power in the region and was afraid that the balance of power would shift to Russia on the continent France under the newly crowned Emperor Napoleon III needed a strong military showing to gain prestige at home and uell growing unrest within the armyRussia s aims were many First they wished to gain the status of Protector of the Orthodox in the Ottoman Empire in order to encourage an end to anti Christian policies in the Porte and give the Russian s a means to meddle in internal Ottoman affairs The Russians also had pan Slavic intentions and were interested in seeing nation states created in Serbia Bulgaria and Romania all then under Ottoman control Russia s borders with the Ottoman s were also contested in the Caucus mountains and in Bessarabia in RomaniaMoldova Russia did not believe that Britain would join in the hostilities and was also counting on the support of Austria their long time ally Russia had made diplomatic maneuvers in Britain that seemed to suppose an indifferent response from the British but in fact Russophobes had become influential in the government and Britain sided strongly with the Ottomans The first maneuvers of the war were in Romania but the pan Slavic elements of the early war disuieted the Austrian government which had Slavic populations in Croatia and Bohemia The Austrian government did not join the Russian war and even mobilized troops to threaten the Russians into a withdrawal from the Danubian principalities At this point in the war the Russians also used their Black Sea fleet to bombard the Turkish coast and destroyed the city of Sinope The Turks encouraged an uprising by Muslim tribes in the Circassian and Caucus regions of Russia and sent men and material in support The other allies France and Britain began to debate plans for attack Sorties into the Baltic to encourage the Swedes to join the war against Russia and toward St Petersburg were rejected as too dangerous Marching a land army into Poland to support a Polish uprising was strongly favoured by the French government but ultimately rejected as it would have had a hostile reaction in Prussia and Austria both states with their own Polish minorities The Crimea was the region chosen This valuable peninsula allowed Russia to control Black Sea trade and put pressure on the Ottoman government due to its important position in the Black Sea trading routes and its transportation capacities to Constantinople If Britain and France could take the region from Russia this valuable spot could be shaved off the Russian Empire and reduce its power in the region and weaken it as a whole War aims were grand from the allies who wanted nothing than the removal of Russian influence from Western Europe Allied troops landed in the Crimea and uickly engaged the Russians in the Battle of Alma in which the allies handed the Russian s their first defeat However allied mismanagement of the war would become clear soon after The allies then settled in for the Siege of Sevastopol which would last many months and lead to thousands upon thousands of allied and Russian deaths These deaths were the result of tragic mismanagement of logistics and supplies most notably from the British Greatcoats were not supplied to troops in the winter tents were not weather proof food was scarce and of poor uality and hospital ships were incompetently euipped to the point of malicious neglect The British public learned of these tidings through the press and both mobilized in support of the troops and brought down the British government in support of a rational approach to the war British performance in the Crimean War was notably lacking and the shortcomings encouraged a modernization of the army toward WWI France suffered from shortcomings as well but the French army was much better euipped during the war The French paved roads from the landing sight to the French camps around Sevastopol and the French army was well supplied with winter gear food and luxuries French rifles were also far superior to Russian arms during the war and could outpace the Russian s by hundreds of meters The French like the Russians and British fell short in warfare The Crimean War saw the eclipse of cavalry as a valuable fighting unit with notable massacres of British and French cavalry units a commonality in early skirmishes Siege works trenches and artillery as well as infantry bayonet charges against fortified trench lines was the common maneuver during the war leading to high casualties on both sides These maneuvers were the per cursors of trench warfare in the early twentieth century Russia s military was far behind in terms of military technology in the 1850 s It had peaked during the defeat of Napoleon in 1812 and had done little to improve since then Russian rifles were horribly incompetent during the war and a similar incompetency beset the Russian high command as that of the allies Russian casualties were massive during the war as generals changed plans mid maneuver battalion commanders ignored orders and Russian troops struggled to survive with little supplies Russia made up for this in its sophisticated defensive engineering at Sevastopol which kept the allies at bay for many months and ground their armies to a halt Russian field pieces and artillery were also up to standard during the war and performed well against the allies giving as good as they got during bombardments The fall of Sevastopol marked the end of the war as Russia diplomatically isolated and humiliated by its loss as well as recently facing the death of Tsar Nicholas I was willing to seek peace The French were also craving an end to hostilities Popular opinion in France for the war was stagnant to hostile and rumors of coup attempts began to alarm Emperor Napoleon French rapprochement with Russia was swift and their mutual hostility with Austria began to transcend even the war itself Peace came in Paris with Russia ceding a chunk of Bessarabia to the Ottomans the Black Sea domination by Russian fleets coming to and end and a mutual guarantee of the rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire signed by all parties at the table Russia lost some territory and its valuable hold over the Ottoman Empire However Russia was able to gain back all it had lost and within about 20 years of the wars conclusion Unrest and reprisal between Christian and Muslim communities in the Ottoman Empire led to the collapse of good will to the Porte by Western powers and allowed Russia to orchestrate the independence of Bulgaria Serbia Montenegro and Romania from the Ottomans with a subseuent return of Bessarabian territories lost in the war The growing power of PrussiaGermany and its defeat of Austria and France in land wars gave way to an agreement between Austria Germany and Russia renouncing the Black Sea clauses in the peace treaty Russia also stepped up its game in the Caucus defeating rebels in the region and pushing back British influence in Persia Even so the dominance of Russia in European affairs had ended The Concert of Europe alliance between Austria and Russia was broken and never repaired French and British interests would remain aligned and Russia would ultimately lose the game in the Ottoman Empire to the two Western powers interests Russia held some sway in the Balkan s but these fractious states would drag Russia into many dangerous wars leading ultimately to the collapse of the Russian Empire after WWI The Crimean War had minor territorial conseuences but massive conseuences for the peace and stability of EuropeFiges has written an interesting and in depth account of the war moving past legends like the Light Brigade and Florence Nightingale although he talks about them and instead examines the war through the eyes of the various belligerents in the war The diplomatic and religious precursors to the war are examined as well as the opening maneuvers and the immediate and future conseuences Battles are described in blow by blow accounts examining maneuvers by each army defensive lines sorties and charges and so on in an in depth look at the battles The logistical considerations or lack thereof are examined The politics and diplomacy behind the war are looked at in depth This is a really well written account of the war and features good criticism great analysis and an interesting comparison of perspective between the belligerents I had some small concerns about sourcing in a few of the chapters but aside from this this is a great history book and one worth a read for those interested in European history from this era as well as those looking for a good chunky military history book A great read and easily recommended to history buffs

Read Crimea The Last Crusade

Crimea The Last Crusade Summary í eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF F the war the Charge of the Light Brigade the Siege of Sebastopol the impact of Florence Nightingale are all here but there is also a rich sense of the Crimea itself and the culture that was destroyed by the fighting Drawing on a huge range of fascinating sources Figes also gives the lived experience of the war from that of the ordinary British soldier in his snow filled trench to the haunted gloomy narrow figure of Tsar Nicholas himself as he vows to take on the whole world in his hunt for religious salvati. A complete book on the Crimean War that starts from far behind to reveal all its causes and continues to provide a wealth of information on every aspect of this conflict Interestingly the author does this in a way that makes the book part of the serious historiography but also completely accessible to the general public It is certainly ideal for those who know little about this subject with most of them coming from historical myths they will learn much and will leave these myths behind

Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes

Crimea The Last Crusade Summary í eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF Rule all Orthodox Christians and control the Holy Land Orlando Figes’ major new book reimagines this extraordinary war in which the stakes could not have been higher and which was fought with a terrible mixture of ferocity and incompetence It was both a recognisably modern conflict the first to be extensively photographed the first to employ the telegraph the first ‘newspaper war’ and a traditional one with illiterate soldiers amateur officers and huge casualties caused by disease The iconic moments o. A comprehensive history of the war with excellent chapters on the aftermath in world politics and national identityon the aftermath of the war The Crimean War reinforced in Russia a long felt sense of resentment against Europe There was a feeling of betrayal that the West had sided with the Turks against Russia It was the first time in history that a European alliance had fought on the side of a Muslim power against another Christian state in a major war All around the Black Sea rim the Crimean War resulted in the uprooting and transmigration of ethnic and religious groups They crossed in both directions over the religious line separating Russia from the Muslim world But if the Paris treaty made few immediate changes to the European map it marked a crucial watershed for international relations and politics effectively ending the old balance of power in which Austria and Russia had controlled the Continent between themselves and forging new alignments that would pave the way for the emergence of nation states in Italy Romania and Germany The Crimean War provides a thorough and engaging explanation of the causes and course of the war It also lays out subseuent events that were precipitated by its peace settlement as well as by unsettled issues and persistent national attitudes Figes s well organized history makes the war seem like the essential pivot point between the Treaty of Vienna after the Napoleonic Wars and the start of WWI I recommend it very highlyFiges decides the most important causes of the conflict were a Russian religious fervor to put all Orthodox believers under jurisdiction of Christian nations if possible Russia itself and the western European Russophobia that feared the Bear would persist in the expansionist phase started by Catherine the Great until it reached India and gobbled up eastern Europe The critical players were Nicholas I of Russia growing increasingly unstable and the British prime minister Palmerston But there were hosts of players on the diplomatic field in the years leading up to hostilities Turcophile Englishmen like Uruart and Canning Emperor Napoleon of France who needed legitimization and was thinking strategically to future moves regarding Italian unification pan Slavic activists in the Balkans Polish exiles etc etc Figes is meticulous in identifying the motives and communications among these groupsThe war itself could probably have been avoided but in Figes s view the role of the press in forming fervent pro war public opinion made this the first modern war in that sense The British public was bombarded with scare stories about the Russians so that cooler heads in the cabinet were forced into a position they didn t want to be in On the other side Nicholas and his successor Alexander were stubborn throughout It was also a modern war in the need for decision making power to filter down to smaller units the use of steamships and longer range riflesThe descriptions of the war itself are horrifying The British effort was criminally disorganized The soldiers lived in indescribable conditions particularly during the winter The French did much better and in fact carried on the bulk of the fighting they were primarily responsible for the victory such as it was All sent stupefying numbers of men into sure death storming enemy strong points But many many died of diseaseAnd then there were the filthy hospitals and the arrival of Florence Nightingale She was not the only one to save lives there is a nice portrait of a pioneering Russian surgeon Nikolai PirogovBut Figes finest achievement is showing how the war and the peace terms altered the geopolitics of the region In particular there were mass relocations of ethnic groups based on religion that affected the Balkans especially France was in the ascendant again after its post Napoleonic second tier position and Britain s reputation suffered Russia felt abused by the western powers and took Sebastopol as the epitome of the absolute dedication of citizen to country willing to die for Russia whether in 1812 1857 or eventually in the siege of LeningradMy reading notes The Charge of the Light Brigade was caused by garbled instructions and personal dislike among the officers but it actually helped turned the tide of the battle I had thought it was futile None of the combatants could justify the war with the real reason they were fighting they all needed cover stories Early on Turkish soldiers arrived to help the allies but the allies ordered them forward without provisions or rest and what provisions they got were not halal so they could not eat They carried out a reasonable retreat were berated and treated terribly for the rest of the war How often both the Russians and the allies lost a chance to end the war by failing to pursue an enemy in retreatAgain an extremely useful book I am not a historian so I have no way to judge how balanced a picture Figes paints but in comparison to Paul Johnson s The Birth of the Modern which I m also reading and which has a blatant conservative slant this seems even This book is very well written an immense amount of material is just where it ought to be There are useful maps and fascinating plates that reflect the first war with photographic evidence war correspondents and fairly rapid communication from front to capitols


10 thoughts on “PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

  1. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Excellent This is actually three books The first one up to p 140 or so is about the origins of the Crimean war At the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem Catholic and Orthodox Christians would fight each other to the death for the right to say be the first to celebrate the Easter Mass Disingenuously Nicholas I of R

  2. says: Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Read Crimea The Last Crusade

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Read Crimea The Last Crusade This book began rather slowly for me but I soon became engrossed in Figes' narrative of this somewhat forgotten war which claimed so many lives for so little I have always been fascinated by the Crimean War and this book added to my knowledge as the author had access to sources not previously available to other authors It was a war of incom

  3. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters The Crimean War A History by Orlando Figes is a large history of the Crimean War between Russia on one side and France Britain and the Ottoman Empire on the other The war began over religious scuffling between Catholic and Greek Orthodox pilgrims in Jerusalem then part of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman's had recently passed policy

  4. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes Read Crimea The Last Crusade It’s Good Friday April 10 1846 Jerusalem is packed with pilgrims on an Easter weekend that happened to fall on the same date in both the Latin and Orthodox calendars The mood is tense The two religious communities had been arguing over who has the right to be first to carry out the rituals at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre one o

  5. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade A comprehensive history of the war with excellent chapters on the aftermath in world politics and national identityon the aftermath of the war The Crimean War reinforced in Russia a long felt sense of resentment against Europe There was a feeling of betrayal that the West had sided with the Turks against Russia It was the first time in history that a European alliance had fought on the side of a Muslim power ag

  6. says: Read Crimea The Last Crusade PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters

    Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Read Crimea The Last Crusade In this history of the Crimean War by Orlando Figes the fighting does not begin until about a third of the way into the book This is not a weakness however because understanding the events that led to the war is essential for making sense of what followed It was a complex mix of politics economics imperial ambitions and religion in

  7. says: Read Crimea The Last Crusade PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    Read Crimea The Last Crusade PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes To look into given the recent developmentsOrlando Figes is a somewhat disgraced author however I would still like a flick through this May 2014 President Putin's visit to Crimea was welcomed there but criticised by Washington BBC news

  8. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters Summary Ì eBook, ePUB or Kindle PDF ✓ Orlando Figes Read Crimea The Last Crusade A complete book on the Crimean War that starts from far behind to reveal all its causes and continues to provide a wealth of information on every aspect of this conflict Interestingly the author does this in a way that makes the book part of the serious historiography but also completely accessible to the general public

  9. says: Read Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 8 characters A solid well written general history of the Crimean WarFiges describes the history of the war from all sides and his coverag

  10. says: PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade Read Crimea The Last Crusade

    PDF READ Crimea The Last Crusade I strongly recommend this book to anyone who has any interest in current conflict in UkraineCrimea who wants to u

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