[Understanding Beliefs] EBOOK DOWNLOAD

  • Paperback
  • 129
  • Understanding Beliefs
  • Nils J. Nilsson
  • English
  • 12 March 2018
  • 9780262526432

Nils J. Nilsson í 2 Summary

Summary è Understanding Beliefs 102 Nils J. Nilsson í 2 Summary Free read ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free í Nils J. Nilsson Re examples But so are theories about astrology alien abduction guardian angels and reincarnation All are products with varying degrees of credibility of fertile minds trying to find explanations for observed phenomena In this book Nils Nilsson examines beliefs what they do for us how we come to hold them and how to evaluate them We should evaluate our beliefs carefully Nilsson points out because they influence so many of our actions and decisionsSome of our beliefs are strongly held than others but all should be considered tent. UNDERSTANDING ALL KNOWLEDGE AS BELIEFS1 This book is no treatise on religion or superstition conspiracy thinking or self help nonsense Nilsson believes that all declarative knowledge is just belief we can tell about reality but not how reality is Our theories are limited by our perception and our perception is biased by other beliefs2 Nilsson is neither a constructivist nor a relativist though He finds himself in the group of scientific instrumentalists who avoid the dispute over the reality or non reality of thinking that is isolated from practice Scientific Instrumentalism considers the truthfulness of ideas determined by their ability to enable accurate predictions There is no real discussion on other paradigms or epistemology in this book which is okay for me since you can read about that in depth elsewhere Thinking about the faculties of knowledge or denying truth is self referentially inconsistent anyway3 Nilsson introduces us to his meta beliefs on beliefs touches Bayesian belief networks and advices us to assess the credibility of a belief by scientific standards which take up a good part in his book The AI pioneer and former head of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence talks a little about machine learning or robot beliefs since we learn about us by studying AI too and warns of belief traps based on lifestyle or logical fallacies and psychological factors eg the confirmation bias This book however doesn t thoroughly discuss many cognitive biases or fallacies there are exhaustive lists on Wikipedia4 Nielsson admits that psychologists and neuroscientists don t yet know very much about beliefs and how they are represented in human brains so you won t read anything about the matter in Nilsson s book eitherUnderstanding Beliefs is a uick informal read and well written balanced in scope and nicely designed Nevertheless Nilsson s book is uite introductory If you re already familiar with critical thinking well everyone think he is or with the scientific method this book is an enjoyable refresher All books from the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series are pocket books with a pleasant stiff and glossy softcover The key statements are repeated every few pages in big white letters on a separate black book page

Characters Understanding Beliefs

Understanding Beliefs

Summary è Understanding Beliefs 102 Nils J. Nilsson í 2 Summary Free read ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free í Nils J. Nilsson Ative and changeable Nilsson shows that beliefs can be uantified by probability and he describes networks of beliefs in which the probabilities of some beliefs affect the probabilities of others He argues that we can evaluate our beliefs by adapting some of the practices of the scientific method and by consulting expert opinion And he warns us about belief traps holding onto beliefs that wouldn't survive critical evaluation The best way to escape belief traps he writes is to expose our beliefs to the reasoned criticism of others. 20200928 20200928ContentsNilsson NJ 2014 0246 Understanding BeliefsSeries ForewordPreface About the NotesAcknowledgments1 Beliefs Knowledge and Models One of the most important things to say about beliefs is that they are or at least should be tentative and changeable Before we trust a belief sufficiently to act on it we can analyze it and perhaps modify it taking into account our own experiences reasoning and the opinions and criticisms of others2 What Do Beliefs Do for Us Our beliefs play important roles in perceiving a current situation in identifying appropriate actions and in predicting the effects of these actions We use beliefs to predict to explain to create to inspire to be entertained to feel good and to buttress confidence3 Where Do Beliefs Come From All of our beliefs are mental constructions Some are conseuences of other beliefs and some are explanations built to explain existing beliefs and experiences We do know that explanations can only be constructed from the materials at hand that is from whatever beliefs and concepts that happen to be around4 Evaluating Beliefs Because missing out on useful beliefs or accepting bad ones can have life altering conseuences we should back up our intuitions about beliefs with disciplined critical thinking On many things our minds are made up But they can only stay made up if we never challenge them with new experiences new information and discussions with knowledgeable people who might hold opposite beliefs5 In All Probability The structure of a belief network encodes information about which beliefs directly affect other beliefs To over simplify beliefs are influenced mainly by neighboring beliefs in the network In their everyday reasoning activities people freuently use informal versions of causality evidential and explaining away methods It is easy to be misled however by failing to appreciate some of the subtleties of probabilistic reasoning6 Reality and Truth Even some theologians around the time of Galileo agreed that there was a difference between reality itself and descriptions of reality Absolute truth is just a label we apply to certain beliefs that are held very very strongly and permanently7 The Scientific Method People have a lot of beliefs that are not falsifiable and therefore such beliefs cannot be considered to be scientific Ideas that are immune from debate can never be in good standing in science nor should they be in daily life8 Robot Beliefs A computer system s beliefs can be updated by additions modifications or deletions of propositions in the system s database Considering how computer systems acuire create organize and evaluate beliefs might provide a useful guide for how people do these things9 Belief Traps When people discuss beliefs only with like minded people their beliefs become extreme To be effective parents or citizens though or for our personal well being what we believe about many things does matterGlossaryNotesFurther ReadingsIndex

Free read ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free í Nils J. Nilsson

Summary è Understanding Beliefs 102 Nils J. Nilsson í 2 Summary Free read ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free í Nils J. Nilsson What beliefs are what they do for us how we come to hold them and how to evaluate them Our beliefs constitute a large part of our knowledge of the world We have beliefs about objects about culture about the past and about the future We have beliefs about other people and we believe that they have beliefs as well We use beliefs to predict to explain to create to console to entertain Some of our beliefs we call theories and we are extraordinarily creative at constructing them Theories of uantum mechanics evolution and relativity a. Good book not great but good Here s my take away We never experience reality directly it is too big and too complex Hence we can never know reality Instead based on limited information that comes to us through our limited experiences and sensory perceptions including what we may read or hear from other people we form models or mental constructions of reality We call these mental constructions beliefs These models help us make predictions about the world and choose our actions The better our models of reality the better we will be able to function in the world Beliefs have two different dimensions a how well these models represent and help us cope with the real world ie accuracy and credibility and b how certain we are about the model ie the strength of our belief The distinction between beliefs and what we call knowledge is only a matter of degree not a difference in kind The strength of our beliefs is not necessarily an indicator of accuracy or credibility we can believe strongly in something that may not be accurate or credible and we can have an accurate belief about which we may remain uncertain or wavering The former is much commonIn addition to being limited many of our perceptions are prone to error There are many fine books about brain bugs the limits of our rationality and heuristics mental shortcuts that help us form uick decisions or judgments Some people also think there are extrasensory ways of perceiving truths The best way to ensure a belief is sound or credible says the author is to apply critical thinking This means checking not just information that could confirm your belief but information that could disconfirm it If information can be disconfirmed through testing or logic you must be prepared to discard that belief or element of the belief The scientific method is the best approach yet devised to evaluate the accuracy and credibility of a belief ie knowledge Seek the opinion of experts Consider the conseuences of and explanation for our beliefs And use the scientific method predict observe test explain Evaluate the credibility of a statement See if different pieces of your beliefs are internally consistent Our knowledge will never be absolute it will always be subject to revision as data is collected hypotheses are tested etc Shadows Embrace Slaughter #2 evaluate them Our beliefs constitute a large part of our knowledge of the world We have beliefs about objects about culture about the past and about the future We have beliefs about other people and we believe that they have beliefs as well We use beliefs to predict to Consoler of Suffering Hearts Modern Matericon Series explain to create to console to Crome Yellow entertain Some of our beliefs we call theories and we are Animorphia An Extreme Colouring and Search Challenge evolution and relativity a. Good book not great but good Here s my take away We never Borka The Adventures of a Goose with no Feathers experience reality directly it is too big and too complex Hence we can never know reality Instead based on limited information that comes to us through our limited Chinese Cinderella III experiences and sensory perceptions including what we may read or hear from other people we form models or mental constructions of reality We call these mental constructions beliefs These models help us make predictions about the world and choose our actions The better our models of reality the better we will be able to function in the world Beliefs have two different dimensions a how well these models represent and help us cope with the real world ie accuracy and credibility and b how certain we are about the model ie the strength of our belief The distinction between beliefs and what we call knowledge is only a matter of degree not a difference in kind The strength of our beliefs is not necessarily an indicator of accuracy or credibility we can believe strongly in something that may not be accurate or credible and we can have an accurate belief about which we may remain uncertain or wavering The former is much commonIn addition to being limited many of our perceptions are prone to From Sinner to Saint extrasensory ways of perceiving truths The best way to The Murders in the Rue Morgue ensure a belief is sound or credible says the author is to apply critical thinking This means checking not just information that could confirm your belief but information that could disconfirm it If information can be disconfirmed through testing or logic you must be prepared to discard that belief or His Mistletoe Bride element of the belief The scientific method is the best approach yet devised to Octopussy and The Living Daylights experts Consider the conseuences of and Octopussy explanation for our beliefs And use the scientific method predict observe test Fifth Avenue Uptown Tale Blazers explain Evaluate the credibility of a statement See if different pieces of your beliefs are internally consistent Our knowledge will never be absolute it will always be subject to revision as data is collected hypotheses are tested Power Engineering etc