EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton

The Lost World of Scripture Read ä 9 2014 Readers' Choice Awards Honorable MentionPreaching's Preacher's Guide to the Best Bible Reference for 2014 ScriptureHermeneuticsFrom John H Walton author of the bestselling Lost World of Genesis One and D Brent Sandy author of Plowshares and Pruning Hooks comes a detailed look at the origins of scriptural authority in ancient oral cultures and how they inform our understanding of the Old and New. Everyone loves a good story of discovery Whether it is in the pages of a good book or watching Indiana Jones on the big screen people love to be drawn into the discovery of lost artifacts and even so lost worlds The field of archeology and its attending fields has unearthed artifacts buried tombs treasures and entire villages and cities that give us a glimpse into the lives and ways of the people and civilizations of the ancient past It many ways we are discovering things and worlds that have been lost and are very different than oursAmong these discoveries are the ancient writings of the various people groups We have found much but there is to discover and even much that we will probably never find The discovery of various writings from ancient times provides us with a wealth of information for how people thought and lived in the past They are a window into the culture More so for Christians they are a window not only into Scripture itself but how others viewed Scripture and its role in the life of the early ChristiansThere is no doubt that modern readers of the Bible have to fight reading their own world into the world of the Bible when it comes to the task of interpretation Unfortunately there are many readers of Scripture Christians included who do this without knowing it The world in which the Bible was born is lost to them and they don t realize itIn an effort to bring the reader of Scripture into the world in which it was born Wheaton professors John Walton Old Testament and D Brent Sandy New Testament have teamed up to write The Lost World of Scripture Ancient Literary Culture and Biblical Authority The purpose of the book is to present as clearly as possible given what we know about the ancient world a picture of the function and authority that oral traditions and written texts had in ancient societies The authors want readers of Scripture to appreciate the fact that while modern cultures especially Western and European cultures are text dominant and therefore have a high literacy rate ancient cultures were oral and hearing dominant and therefore had a low literacy rate Understanding the oral and manuscript galaxy of the biblical world before the watershed of print culture is essential for grasping how the Bible was written 11 It is this lost world of oral and hearing dominance in which Scripture was bornOverviewThe book is divided into four parts For those familiar with Walton s The Lost World of Genesis One the same proposition pattern is used for the chapter structure Through the proposition structure the authors systematically bring the reader through the thought process ancients had about the role and authority of oral traditions and written texts so that modern readers of Scripture might accurately understand what Biblical authority is and specifically what the inerrancy of Scripture does and does not and can and cannot meanPart One lays the ground work in understanding the composition of texts in the Old Testament and how information was communicated orally If we are to understand fully the development of biblical literature and our view of its authority we need to adjust or thinking about how information was disseminated and traditions transmitted in the ancient world 18 Here the authors address the nature of authority in an oral and hearing dominant culture Authority it is said was not connected to a document but to the person of authority behind the document when that person was known or to the tradition itself 27 The oral transmission of information was primary and thus carried through people Written texts were not unimportant but only carried authority in so far as the person behind the information had authority One of the key concepts discussed here is speech act theory which examines how communication is carried and meaning is intended through locutions words and genres which embody illocutions the intention to do something with locutions such as a blessing with a perlocution view to seeing a response from the audience like obeying 41 Important to the author s argument is the distinct role each part plays in the communicative act of meaning and expressing authority God s authority and the inerrancy of the text it is argued are located in its illucutions 42 44 45 On the other hand inspiration takes place at the locution level 44 Why is this distinction important It is said thatEven though people in Israel believed there were waters above the earth held back by a solid sky or that cognitive processes took place in the heart or kidneys the illocution of the texts is not affirming those beliefs as revealed truth Culture specific aspects of an illocution do not have a universal perlocution eating pork circumcision head covering Culture specific aspects of the perlocution need to be translated to an appropriate contemporary perlocution 45Walton and Sandy are trying to help us make a separation between those things which are culture specific and authoritative truth that God is communicating by His Spirit through the human authors of Scripture Admittedly part one will be the most difficult section of the book for readers to grasp especially if they are not familiar with speech act theoryWhile I appreciate and even agree with much of what the authors are trying to prevent in Biblical interpretation I do have some reservations and concerns with some of their conclusions Two examples will suffice First while I do not dispute the value of speech act theory and its distinguishing between words affirmations and expectations upon the readers it feels that the different parts have been so separated so as to ignore the fluid and wedded relationship they share Yes words have meaning in a context and contexts are where authors intentions are but this belief is not to be held at the expense of the value of words and phrases Words are not just inspired but certain words are given through which meaning and affirmations are to be conveyed Second and in conjunction with the first concern is with how the authors view the role of textual criticism In analyzing the nature of textual criticism that is finding the accurate wording of the originally inspired manuscripts of Scripture Walton and Sandy conclude that since we do not have the originals with which to compare our best Hebrew and Greek texts we cannot know what the originals were and it does not matter according to their model 67 Therefore it does no good to say the originals were inspired if we do not have them In my estimation and that of many this conclusion will not do and unnecessary It may be so that oral dominant cultures viewed texts differently than moderns do but this is not a basis upon which to overly devalue determining the wording of the originals Just because we have little confidence in the exact wording of a few places in Scripture is not a warrant to say the whole task is irrelevant Why let uncertainties over a very small part of the text drive our understanding of the rest of the text and not vice versaPart Two deals with the same issues of composition and communication but for the New Testament The hearing and oral dominance of the ANE world continues into the NT world though there is a shift to use of texts around 700 BC 79 With the Greeks and Romans paving the way for text it is clear the orality still dominated texts as they were written primarily for oral use and memorization 85 Even philosophers bemoaned the use of text as they felt it would undermine oral lectures and created a lazy mind 104Moving to the NT era we see a noticeable shift to dependence on texts most notably within Christianity Many myths are dispelled concerning a correspondence between illiteracy in reading with intelligence and even education The ministry of Jesus is examined through the lens of His oral communication to people who were oral and hearing centered Proposition 8 The authors deduce that Jesus was educated and could read despite his meager background as a carpenter in Galilee 119 There is a good discussion of Jesus as the logos word of God and how this is to inform our understanding of most of the texts that speak of the word of the Lord in both testaments Prop 9 Some Christians will have minor disagreements with some of their conclusions here but generally they make good arguments for their case This moves into Proposition 10 which deals with how Jesus would have thought of the transmission of His own wordsProposition 11 and 13 address how variants within oral tradition were handled Since they were common within secular oral tradition it is believed that they were accepted within the oral tradition of Jesus words and sayings This is why many NT scholars when referring to the words of Jesus in the Gospels refer to them as containing the ipsissima vox voice of Jesus words and not the ipsissma verba exact words 149 This may come as a shock to many readers of red letters Bibles which have the words of Jesus in red so they can be found and easily distinguished from the rest of the text The result is that what we have in the Gospels is not the exact words of Jesus word for word as He said them in the moment but we do have the essential words He spoke and can be confident that the Gospels are reliable in that regard Oral tradition had acceptable ranges of variation in the retelling of stories and the words of Jesus would have fared no betterPart Three tackles the Biblical world of literary genres Here the nature of modern historiography and ancient myth telling are compared as well as the implications this has for the authority of Scripture One of the points the authors try to make is that when the writers of the OT recounted and wrote about events in the past they did so with varying purposes in mind This explains some of the differences between the same accounts in Kings and Chronicles as well as the Gospels in the NT The varying accounts of the same events do not mean that the writers thought truthfulness about the events was unimportant but they had different standards of retelling events and they had agendas in doing so Here again the authors make use of the locution and illocution distinction which leads them to make a number of confusing and concerning statements regarding the written text of Scripture For instance in the discussion of the role law had within ANE cultures and Israel they make the following conclusionNothing from ancient Near East suggests that any society had a normative written set of laws that contained a comprehensive legal code for that society From the discussion of hearing dominant cultures in the early chapters of this book it is easy to see why that is the case Written documents did not hold position of authority in a hearing dominant context There is no reason to think that there was a comprehensive written authoritative document containing the legislation for Israelite society 219This statement and other like it is confusing to say the least It leads one to ask what does one make of the Pentateuch if it is not viewed as a written document containing Israelite legal code If readers are familiar with Walton s previous work on ANE literature and culture then this statement is not surprising For all of the valuable information Walton has uncovered he has tunnel vision when he uses the comparisons between ANE cultures and Israel at the expense and almost complete ignorance of the differences It is precisely that Israel had a written legal code as extensive as they did regardless of how long after it was verbally given that makes them uniue among ANE peoples This is the phenomenon of ScriptureConclusionSo what about inerrancy and authority How does the oral and hearing dominant culture of the OT and NT shape our understanding of the authority and inerrancy of the written text of Scripture God s word For the authors inerrancy is useful as long as it is properly defined While it could die the death of a thousand ualifications its basic meaning without error is true of Scripture But Walton and Sandy are wary of the future of the term inerrancy Not because they believe the Bible has errors but because the term inerrancy may no longer be clear enough strong enough or nuanced enough to carry the weight with which it has been traditionally been encumbered 275 Time will tell in this regard but I think inerrancy still has a future and books like Five Views on Inerrancy show not only its value but necessityFor the authority of Scripture the authors do believe Scripture is authoritative for Christians over any other possible book It is our standard of faith rule and practice they would say It has authority because it is in written form what God said verbally What I am not sure of is whether or not they see Scripture since it is the words of God as having a self understanding of its own authority What does God say to us about His word in His word Further Scripture is our only access to the oral tradition of the OT and NT It is now the Christians only authority to God s spoken word This is not something the authors touch on and needs to be exploredThe Lost World of Scripture is a mixed bag for me Readers will be captivated by the historical explanation of how oral tradition worked and the mindset of people in these cultures The book is far from disengaging They do a good job of contrasting the value and place of written texts within hearing and text dominant cultures and how modern notions of accuracy do not line up with ancient notions The authors recognize that they are making possible scenarios and conclusions based on their research but they seem to be dogmatic in their theological conclusions about the inerrancy and authority of Scripture then is warranted As mentioned previously what is missing is a discussion on the phenomenon of Scripture as the written revelation of God to man While much if not most of the OT was given orally first most of the NT was not see the letters of Paul Why is it that we have so much writing from Christianity as opposed to other religions of their time Why did Christians write their oral tradition down as much as they didThe Lost World of Scripture is an intriguing book but needs to be read carefully and with discernmentNOTE I received this book for free from IVP and was under no obligation to provide a favorable review The thoughts and words expressed are my own

review The Lost World of ScriptureThe Lost World of Scripture

The Lost World of Scripture Read ä 9 Testaments today Stemming from uestions about scriptural inerrancy inspiration and oral transmission of ideas The Lost World of Scripture examines the process by which the Bible has come to be what it is today From the reasons why specific words were used to convey certain ideas to how oral tradition impacted the transmission of biblical texts the authors seek to uncover how these issues might affe. Review This book has a lot in common with Denis Lamoureux s Evolutionary Creation but without the focus on evolution They both approach the Old Testament by recognizing that God is accommodating scripture to the culture and worldview of people living in the Ancient Near East Our task is to discern the cultural package from the eternal contents and this is not easily done without careful study Lamoureux calls this the MessageIncident principle and Walton refers to LocutionIllocutionPerlocution Depending on whether a reader is familiar with science or with scripture either Lamoureux s or Walton s book would be appropriate for themIn this book I found Part 1 to be the most stimulating I m glad that the book addressed the oral culture of the New Testament too but the writing was not as lively Ultimately it s fascinating to know that written Scripture is not essential to the Judeo Christian faith Oral Scripture in the hearts and minds of its adherents is the source of God s revelation and Scripture was slowly written long afterwards The unusual phrasings and occasional inconsistencies are reflective of oral culture and transmission and that those people had very different values and expectations than we do Ironically both liberals and conservatives tend to read Scripture through a modern lens and both distort the message in doing soNotesIntroductionp11 Transition from print to digital culture is comparable to the transition from oral to literary culture It changes how we think access information and perceive realityPart 1p19Writing locates authority in a text and its reader instead of in a tradition and its community Authority in ancient oral culture was different than today Lest one think that writing is superior remember that if you uestion them they always say only one and the same thing Plato s Phaedres In an orally transmitted culture you can ask for clarification p24 How do you know that a text was originally composed orally Includes repetition within a passage use of formulas and formula patterns and conventionalized patterns of contentIn the ancient world there were no books and no authors Instead there were authorities documents and scribes Tradents are authorities that are involved in the perpetuation of traditionsp27 Let s not forget that much of what we know about modern science is given to us by Tradents too We certainly don t do the original experiments ourselvesp31 In an oral culture documents do not carry the authority the community and tradition does Documents are occasionally updated to reflect the changes in language and oral tradition The locus of authority is the community itselfp32 The Old Testament Hebrew language that we have is not what Abraham spoke nor even what Moses spoke The text was modified over time to reflect the contemporary cultureWhat kinds of changes were made1 updated language and place names2 Explanatory glosses no such thing as marginal notations in an oral culture3 Added sections such as the death of Moses4 Updated formulations legal interpretations5 Revised to address a new audience in relevant waysp38 The canonical status of particular texts developed much later than the content of the text itself Texts only became authoritative once literary culture began to thrivep43 Every successful act of communication reuires some degree of accommodation to bridge the gap between speaker and listenerp49 In God s revelation to Israel he was not focused on giving them precise information about cosmology or natural history His message was importantp50 The only relevant causes were divine causes and human causes There wasn t a separate category for natural causesp60 Moses is best understood as the authority and tradent of the Pentateuch not the author The written text came together over many centuries within the oral culture and tradition that he presided overPart 2p91 A speaker has to adjust to his listener Oral speech is adaptive to its listeners Written language is not A written text can become stale outdated sperseded damaged or lost completelyp95 Oral cultures house their central convictions in fundamental narratives that are repeated over and over again Narratives and repetition are central to oral culturep101 Thucydides is well known for admitting that he used historical imagination in reconstructing speeches and placing them in the mouths of statesmen and generals In doing so he conveyed real history through a literary mediump111 Isn t it curious that Jesus never wrote anything down He didn t write the gospels and he didn t write any theology Jesus preached few sermons yet told freuent stories His audience was non literate and oral Jesus communication was truth telling at the highest level even though his parables weren t literalp121 The LogosWord referred to oral communication not written textsp128 The Bible is not what Western modern Christians might expect or even wish from God The Bible is some of the best literature ever written in the history of the human race But it is not a newspaper telling you exactly what happened yesterday And it is not a science textbook telling you how everything is physically constructed And that s good because newspapers and textbooks go out of date almost as soon as they are publishedp149 The Gospels preserve the voice of Jesus not necessarily his exact words He didn t speak Greek anywayp176 Even the New Testament writers were not really authors in the modern sense They were responsible for transmitting the oral traditions Based on their knowledge of the oral texts of their community they crafted written versions that would have been fully recognizable to and probably subject to the approval of the communityp178 Modern presupposition Print culture assumes that if oral culture did not preserve someone s exact words then what that person said cannot be known accuratelyp186 Jesus message was radical his method of communicating was routine The importance of his message did not reure that it be written down either by him or his disciples Although he left behind only oral texts his message was no less authoritative He affirmed the divine source of his speech and the permanence of his words Authority did not begin in the written textp196 Preserving exact wording was not necessary in the minds of New Testament authors when they uoted from the Old Testament Differences in wording and details did not put truth at riskPart 3All the world came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph What kind of historical claim is being made hereOur understanding of myth and history are both modern concepts that map poorly onto ancient textsBecause of the composition conventions of ancient authors it is very difficult and potentially destructive to try to precisely reconstruct historical events from the text We can affirm that the Bible is dealing with real events in the real past but that does not necessarily mean that we can reconstruct the past like a photographThe widespread work on the hypothetical document referred to as is largely based on a literary assumptionPart 4The Bible primarily relates truth through narratives of human experience and through poetic language that transcend the normal boundaries of expression What has been written with imagination must also be read with imagination the creative side of your brain must be engaged not just your logical systematic side otherwise you make it into a lifeless sterile textWhen we press the Bible into tasks that are not within its purview we are violating its authority by trying to extract a word from God and presenting our conclusion as God s Word when in reality he has said no such thingEpilogueInspired truth was communicated and preserved without the necessity of exact wording Speeches for example were reconstructed after the factGod often works through processes that we would label as naturalThe authority behind a book is important than identifying someone as the sole or direct author Later material could be added and later editors could have a role in the compositional history of a canonical bookThe Bible used numbers rhetorically within the range of the conventions of the ancient world

Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton

The Lost World of Scripture Read ä 9 Ct our current doctrine on the authority of Scripture In this book we are exploring ways God chose to reveal his word in light of discoveries about ancient literary culture write Walton and Sandy Our specific objective is to understand better how both the Old and New Testaments were spoken written and passed on especially with an eye to possible implications for the Bible's inspiration and authority. Was tempted to rate lower because I still have so many uestions Way than when I started But I suppose that is how this thing works We are misinformed readers when we use the Bible for purposes that exceed its intents This was a fantastic book that radically moved my understanding of scripture Many of these things were floating around in the back of my mind but this analysis provided all the scholarly work and insight that I was sorely lacking and will certainly help to elevate my discourse on this subject in the future It is challenging for evangelicals but in a good positive continuing to build our knowledge of scripture way Scripture is not undermined in this book but re positioned and given a new kind of authority and can change the way we read it


10 thoughts on “EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

  1. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton review The Lost World of Scripture

    Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton John H. Walton À 9 Read review The Lost World of Scripture I was impressed with John Walton's books on the Genesis creation accounts So I decided to read this book on biblical authority that he co authored with Brent Sandy Like with his books on the creation accounts the authors take a close look at the literary culture in the Ancient Near East and then use that to evaluate the

  2. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

    review The Lost World of Scripture EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton Everyone loves a good story of discovery Whether it is in the pages of a good book or watching Indiana Jones on the big screen people love to be drawn into the discovery of lost artifacts and even so lost worlds

  3. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton John H. Walton À 9 Read

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Inerrancy is a tricky word Though as told by this book it was coined as a statement of trust in God against the hermeneutic of skepticism employed by scholars bent on discovering new ways of deconstructing religion today it is often used as a purity check for whether someone is a real Christian or not But as the

  4. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton John H. Walton À 9 Read Review This book has a lot in common with Denis Lamoureux's Evolutionary Creation but without the focus on evolution They both approach the Old Testament by recognizing that God is accommodating scripture to the culture and worldview of people

  5. says: John H. Walton À 9 Read EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton review The Lost World of Scripture Great study and really important look at the differences and authority rooted in orality and textuality

  6. says: John H. Walton À 9 Read Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton review The Lost World of Scripture

    review The Lost World of Scripture John H. Walton À 9 Read EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton There is a LOT to pull from this book and the claims the co authors are making are not insignificant These claims are remarkably well argued though which makes it an indispensable read John Walton contributes the chapters on Old Testament composition and while I did enjoy these I particularly love some of Walton's other work on Genesis I was extremely impressed by newcomer Brent Sandy's chapters on the New Testament tex

  7. says: review The Lost World of Scripture John H. Walton À 9 Read EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Walton and Sandy give a helpful and detailed look into the oral dominant world in which the Bible originated an

  8. says: Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton John H. Walton À 9 Read review The Lost World of Scripture

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Walton and Sandy’s book is a reexamination of the evangelical doctrines of inerrancy and biblical authority in light of current research in ancient literary production Specifically their objective is “to unde

  9. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton

    EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Was tempted to rate lower because I still have so many uestions Way than when I started But I suppose that is how this thing works We are misinformed readers when we use the Bible for purposes that exceed its intents This was a fantastic book that radically moved my understanding of scripture Many of these things were floating around in the back of my mind but this analysis provided all the scholarly work and

  10. says: EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Download × E-book, or Kindle E-pub À John H. Walton review The Lost World of Scripture

    review The Lost World of Scripture John H. Walton À 9 Read EBOOK FREE (The Lost World of Scripture) Ò John H. Walton Walton and Sandy think through the doctrine of inerrancy and biblical authority within the world of the Bible rat

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  • Paperback
  • 320
  • The Lost World of Scripture
  • John H. Walton
  • English
  • 15 November 2019
  • 9780830840328